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Thread: PYCNOGENOL - MONOGRAPH

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    Default PYCNOGENOL - MONOGRAPH

    A monograph is a paper on a single topic. Herbal monographs normally include nomenclature, part used, constituents, range of application, contraindications, side effects, incompatibilities with other medications, dosage, use, and action of the herb.
    For doses used for specific conditions in rats, see notations on results under "animals" in Monograph.

    http://abc.herbalgram.org/site/DocSe...pdf?docID=8983

    When tested for toxicity, Pycnogenol was found to be very low, at 1000 mg. per 5 kg of body wt. For most conditions this source has been tested in rats the dose was 20 mg. or under. 100 mg. and 150 mg. were used orally daily for set periods of time to treat specific extreme life threatening conditions.


    ADVERSE EFFECTS / SAFETY DATA

    Preclinical Toxicology

    The acute toxicity is low after oral administration in mice, rats, and guinea pigs.122 The most representative median lethal dose (LD50) value, following the current Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines (OECD 423123), is > 5.0 g/kg body weight in rats.122

    In chronic toxicity tests (OECD 408124),oral application of up to 1000 mg/kg/day in rats did not produce abnormal clinical or behavioral signs, nor any change in body weight, hematology, clinical biochemistry, or food/water consumption. Furthermore, no pathomorphological changes were found.122

    The level of mutagenicity of Pycnogenol was assessed with the OECD 471125 bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test), the micronucleus assay in mouse bone marrow cells in vivo, and the chromosome aberration assay in human lymphocytes in vitro.122 The results all converge to suggest that Pycnogenol is nonmutagenic.122 These are the published study journal, see info under Results on pg. 73.
    Used prophylactically, Pycnogenol can help prevent serious health conditions from developing.

    Pycnogenol comes in various dosages, including 30, 50, 100, and 150 mg. etc.... For best absorption split dose between AM & PM feedings.

    Recommended maintenance dosage for squirrels, depending on body weight, is 1/16 to 1/8 of a capsule powder daily added to a wet food.

    https://www.amazon.com/Healthy-Origi.../dp/B00CLYNAUA

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    Default Re: PYCNOGENOL - MONOGRAPH

    Pycnogenol for Cardiomyopathy

    Oral dose of Pycnogenol used in study of cardiomyopathy in rats:

    Oral aqueous solution of Pycnogenol used to treat Cardiomyopathy in rats was and aqueous (liquid solution) of (150mg /kg (b.w)/day) orally for five weeks.

    https://jbiochemtech.com/storage/mod...pathy-in-r.pdf

    Presently the liquid form of Pycnogenol is not available. (See powdered Pycnogenol from "Healthy Origins" 150 mg. capsule)

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    Default Re: PYCNOGENOL - MONOGRAPH

    Pycnogenol decreased viral replication in mice with myocarditis.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3195533/

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    Default Re: PYCNOGENOL - MONOGRAPH

    Pycnogenol in Diabetes


    Diabetes and Complications - Pg. 8

    http://abc.herbalgram.org/site/DocSe...pdf?docID=1741


    In vitro (under glass)

    In vitro experiments with alpha-glucosidase were conducted to determine how Pycnogenol clinically-reduces blood sugar in type 2 diabetics.57 Alpha-glucosidase is an enzyme secreted in the duodenum that hydrolyses glucose residues from polysaccharides (starches). Inhibition of the enzyme diminishes absorption of glucose and reduces the post prandial blood glucose peaks. The activity of Pycnogenol was compared to acarbose, a prescription alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. Pycnogenol was found to be a potent inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase, more potent than acarbose (IC50 5.3 μg/mL and 1 mg/mL, respectively).57


    Animal (in vivo: in the animal)


    Pycnogenol’s effect on diabetes was evaluated in 2 in vivo studies. Healthy rats and rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were treated with 10 mg/kg Pycnogenol intraperitoneally (IP) for 14 days. Pycnogenol significantly reduced blood glucose levels in diabetic rats by 28% (p < 0.05), but not to normal levels.58 In contrast, another study treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with Pycnogenol 5 mg/kg orally for 8 weeks and found no significant reduction in blood sugar.59 However, it is noteworthy that the streptozotocin rat model represents type 1 diabetes.

    A study evaluating diabetes-related eye disorders treated normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with a low-carbohydrate diet plus Pycnogenol (10 mg/kg, IP for 14 days). The combination treatment reduced the risk of diabetic retinopathy and cataract formation.

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    Default Re: PYCNOGENOL - MONOGRAPH

    More on the positive effects of Pycnogenol:

    Pycnogenol is actively anti-microbial.

    Pycnogenol® exerts anti-microbial activity against a broad range of micro-organisms: gram positive and negative bacteria, as well as yeast [Torras et al, 2005). The minimum inhibitory dose ranged from 20 μg/ml (human dosage), such as for Staphilococcus aureus

    Pycnogenol counters the negative effects of irradiation on lining of the bowel in rats.

    https://www.researchgate.net/publica...ve_irradiation

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    Default Re: PYCNOGENOL - MONOGRAPH

    Pycnogenol (PBE) Inhibits Bacterial Growth of Pathogenic Microorganisms


    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3203267/

    PBE was shown to have antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic prokaryotes (gram negative and positive bacteria), and eukaryotes (fungi and yeasts)(83,84). For instance, growth and adherence of Helicobacter pylori (the gram negative, microaerophilic bacterium) to mucosal cells of the stomach were inhibited by Pycnogenol®, in vitro. In another study, antimicrobial effects of Pycnogenol® against 23 pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, Aspergillus oryzae, and Salmonella sp.) have been investigated. Consequently, Pycnogenol® inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms in minimum inhibitory dosages (MID) ranging from 20 to 250 μg/mL(84).

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