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Thread: 1.5 % of Americans carry MRSA antibiotic resistant Super bug

  1. #1
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    Default 1.5 % of Americans carry MRSA antibiotic resistant Super bug

    https://www.wired.com/2012/10/superbugs-in-animals/

    (For comparison's sake: An estimated 1.5% of Americans carry MRSA in their noses.)
    Sadly a few animals out of over a hundred tested at a wildlife rescue and rehabilitation center in the Midwest,

    that included two rabbits and a shore bird, have also been found to carry MRSA, an antibiotic resistant (Super Bug) bacteria.

    A small percentage of the animals also tested, which included one squirrel, were found to carry S. Aureus.

    Thankfully that bug, unlike the antibiotic resistant MRSA Super Bug, is sensitive to treatment by the antibiotic Methicillin.

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    Default Re: 1.5 % of Americans carry MSRA antibiotic resistant Super bug

    More on MRSA: http://vetmed.illinois.edu/pet_colum...ts-about-mrsa/

    MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) are mutated strains of “Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus, S. aureus, or SA)

    How many strains of MRSA are there? https://www.medicinenet.com/mrsa_infection/article.htm

    Presently two strains of MRSA are known, the: “Hospital acquired”, (HA-MRSA), and “Commonly Acquired”. (CA-MRSA).

    The “Hospital Acquired” MRSA (HA-MRSA) is generally less virulent than the commonly acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA), save for patients with compromised immune systems, and open wounds.

    The “Commonly Acquired” MRSA (CA-MSRA) is the more virulent strain that puts both people, and their pets, as well as wildlife, at greater risk of being infected upon contact, or close proximity in the case the lungs are effected.

    Out of 114 wild animals taken into care at a Wildlife Rehab Center in the Mid-west:

    Seven of the animals, or 6.1%, carried S. aureus that was sensitive to methicillin; these included owls, pigeons, a beaver, a heron, and a squirrel. Three animals, or 2.6%, carried MRSA: two Eastern cottontail rabbits and a lesser yellowlegs, a migratory shorebird.

    Since these mutated antibiotic-resistant strains of Staph bacteria have now reached our shores, the game rules' have changed. Before you handle, closely examine, or do a non-invasive procedure a wild squirrel or other wild animal, consider taking few moments to put on vinyl gloves, long sleeve clothing, and if needed safety glasses, and a mask, to prevent exposure to MRSA bacteria. This is especially needful when handling animals that have open wounds, and/or abscesses; for these conditions can be indicative of a MRSA bacterial infection.
    Last edited by TubeDriver; 04-15-2018 at 01:26 PM.

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    Default Re: 1.5 % of Americans carry MSRA antibiotic resistant Super bug


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    Default Re: 1.5 % of Americans carry MRSA antibiotic resistant Super bug

    http://www.pycnogenol.com/fileadmin/...180116_WEB.pdf

    Pycnogenol® exerts anti-microbial activity against a broad range of micro-organisms: gram positive and negative bacteria, as well as yeast [Torras et al, 2005). The minimum inhibitory dose ranged from 20 μg/ml (human dosage), such as for Staphilococcus aureus,

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    Default Re: 1.5 % of Americans carry MRSA antibiotic resistant Super bug

    The moral of the story is you are more likely to die from infectious diseases passed by a human than a squirrel. The Plague averages 7 human deaths yearly from fleas (not squirrels) in endemic areas and every year influenza kills between 12,000 and 49,000 people.

    Makes me feel VERY safe handling squirrels and VERY unsafe in the supermarket around uneducated people who can't sneeze in their shirts.

    I use gloves when I handle wilds, wash my hands as well as taking common sense precautions to avoid being bitten and I also keep wilds isolated from my NR's.

    Name:  over_the_hedge_hammy_the_squirrel.jpg
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    Default Re: 1.5 % of Americans carry MRSA antibiotic resistant Super bug

    Here is the description and symptoms noted for rats that contract MRSA.

    https://www.petmd.com/exotic/conditi...ccal_infection

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    Default Re: 1.5 % of Americans carry MRSA antibiotic resistant Super bug


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    Default Re: 1.5 % of Americans carry MRSA antibiotic resistant Super bug

    From previous article: antibiotics, those that don't work and those that do.



    Most common Superbugs


    •MRSA (Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to multiple antibiotics)
    •VRE (Enterococcus species resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin)
    •PRSP (Streptococcus pneumoniae strains resistant to penicillin)
    •ESBL (Escherichia coli and similar bacteria that are resistant to a certain category of antibiotics, such as cephalosporins)

    Drug reactions can occur. Killing of "friendly flora" (normal protective bacteria) in the bowel can lead to other infections such as pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile.
    Fortunately, many MRSA infections can be treated by a common and long-standing antibiotic, vancomycin (Vancocin and generic brands), and it is included in most empiric treatment regimens. Newer drugs are also available, although some are much more expensive: ceftaroline (Teflaro), linezolid (Zyvox), daptomycin (Cubicin), dalbavancin (Dalvance), telavancin (Vibativ), and others. Only linezolid comes in a pill in addition to intravenous (IV) solution. Moderate to severe infections need to be treated by IV antibiotics, usually given in the hospital setting and completed at home with a home health agency.

    Less serious infections are often susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim), doxycycline (Vibramycin), and clindamycin (Cleocin), all of which come in an oral form as well as IV. Rarely, some strains have become resistant to vancomycin (vancomycin-resistance, vancomycin-resistant Staph aureus, VRSA); this may require combinations of antibiotics.

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    Default Re: 1.5 % of Americans carry MRSA antibiotic resistant Super bug

    I post this here solely as a reference for the various drugs used to treat, "bacterial+pneumonia+caused+by+staphylococcus in humans,

    specifically as to the effects and side effects they may have in humans.

    I have no idea which of these might be usable to treat this condition in tree squirrels, or which may better work better than others.

    https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/condit...staphylococcus

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    Default Re: 1.5 % of Americans carry MRSA antibiotic resistant Super bug

    These descriptions and photos can be helpful in diagnosis. Warning graphic photos!

    Pyoderma: http://ratguide.com/health/integumen...n/pyoderma.php

    Staph infection and treatment: http://ratguide.com/health/figures/p...a_figure_1.php

    Treatment includes bathing treatment, along with specific AB.

    Deep Pyoderma: (abscesses) involving necrotizing fasciitis (flesh eating bacteria)

    http://ratguide.com/health/figures/p...a_figure_3.php

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    Default Re: 1.5 % of Americans carry MRSA antibiotic resistant Super bug

    CDC Reference Guide of AB Resistant Strains of Bacteria:

    https://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/biggest-threats.html


    Update on new non-antibiotic drug source found to counter MSRA

    https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/a...kill-MRSA.html

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    Default Re: 1.5 % of Americans carry MRSA antibiotic resistant Super bug

    As this article by a Veterinarian explains: The 'MRSA' form is most common in people, and rare in pets;

    yet the, 'MRSP form is common form in pets and rare in people. MRSP isn't treated with antibiotics in pets.

    https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/fi...SP-Handout.pdf
    Avoid contact with your pet’s nose, mouth and
    bum: These areas are most likely to harbour MRSP.

    If contact with these areas occurs, make sure to wash
    your hands with soap and water after.

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    Default Re: 1.5 % of Americans carry MRSA antibiotic resistant Super bug

    (MRSP) Methicillin Resistant (Staphyolococus pseudintermedius), a clone of (MRSA) 'Super bug" strain unfortunately, has the same core DNA as MRSA.

    MRSP skin infections are noted to commonly occur in cats and dogs; yet aren't limited to these pets, but common to livestock and found in wildlife also. MRSP can be tested for from the nose, mouth, anus where where it also lodges from infection. The potential of this bacteria entrenching itself is increased significantly following AB treatment that causes damage to the chief part of the immune system comprised of the good bacterial strains in the gut, that normally inhibit the overgrowth of normal bad bacterial strains in mammals

    More on (MRSP):

    Multi-resistant bacteria in companion animals
    Within the last decade, a number of multi-resistant bacteria have emerged in companion animals. The most important of these bacteria are extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) (1). Both are resistant to beta-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins), and frequently resistant to other antibiotic groups. They represent a serious threat to animal health due to the increased risk of treatment failure. These bacteria are recognized nosocomial pathogens, and can be spread between patients via contamination of the hospital environment, via invasive procedures and via veterinary personnel.
    .
    Definition of MRSP

    MRSP is a S. pseudintermedius strain which has acquired the methicillin resistance gene mecA. This is the same gene found in MRSA. MRSP was first identified in Europe in 2006, and since then a specific clone (termed ST71) has spread rapidly and internationally (2). This clone, in addition to beta-lactam resistance, is typically also resistant to lincosamides, luoroquinolones, sulpha/trimethoprim, macrolides, tetracyclines and gentamicin.
    Diagnosis of MRSP

    Resistance to oxacillin in S. pseudintermedius is characteristic of MRSP. Oxacillin should always be included in sensitivity testing of S. pseudintermedius. Absolute confirmation of MRSP requires identification of the mecA gene using PCR or of the protein PBP2a using a latex agglutination test. Until this confirmation is available, all oxacillin-resistant strains should be considered resistant to all beta-lactams, regardless of any apparent susceptibility to penicillins and cephalosporins in vitro.
    Treatment of MRSP infections

    Treatment of MRSP is complicated and should be customized to the individual patient based on factors such as type of infection, the patient’s health status and the antibiotic resistance profile. MRSP is most commonly seen in skin and wound infections in dogs, and to a lesser degree in cats. Whenever possible, employ treatment modalities which avoid use of antibiotics such as wound drainage and debridement, along with topical antiseptics. Topical antiseptics containing chlorhexidine or benzoyl peroxide are very effective against superficial folliculitis. When antimicrobial treatment cannot be avoided, local application of e.g. fusidic acid is preferred to systemic use for localized skin infections. Systemic antibiotic therapy, when needed, should always be based on sensitivity testing and the cascade system described in Chapter 1.7.
    Performing and interpreting sensitivity tests

    Sensitivity tests are an important part of the diagnostic workup for making a rational antibiotic selection. Bacteria may be classified as sensitive, intermediately sensitive or resistant based on standard breakpoint values, which are specific to the antibiotic, bacteria and host. Sensitive (S) bacteria are inhibited at antibiotic concentrations achieved in the plasma with correct dosing. Intermediately sensitive (I) isolates may be inhibited if the antibiotic is concentrated at the site of infection or can be administered at higher doses without side-effects. Resistant (R) bacteria are not inhibited by antibiotic concentrations achieved with standard dosing regimens. It should be emphasized that these categories only apply to systemic therapy. Topical therapy (e.g. in otitis externa) can result in successful treatment of apparently resistant isolates because the local antibiotic concentration far exceeds that which could be achieved systemically

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    Default Re: 1.5 % of Americans carry MRSA antibiotic resistant Super bug

    Just incase you've missed it; a new drug is being tested for treating AB resistant bacterial strains like MRSA and MRSP.

    If this were to turn out to be safe and effective; it would mean that the good bacteria in the gut, that comprises over 70 percent

    of the whole body's immune system, wouldn't be reduced as it is with AB, lending to more favorable outcomes.

    https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/a...kill-MRSA.html


    "Staphefekt" is based on naturally occurring enzymes called endolysins, which are found in viruses and kill bacteria.

    Endolysins originate from bacteriophages (phages) - microorganisms that target bacteria.

    In nature, phages use bacteria to replicate, in the process destroying the bacterial cell wall with endolysins.

    The working mechanism is very different to that of antibiotics, meaning even strains of bacteria resistant to antibiotics are susceptible to the new drug.

    "Staphefekt" exhibits several other characteristics including rapid killing of the target bacteria.

    And the likelihood of emerging resistance to the drug is 'very limited', because it works independent of the bacterial metabolism - which harbours the ability to resist - and targets a region of the bacterial cell wall less susceptible to mutation.

    In addition the drug has been found to only target specific bacteria, leaving those beneficial strains unharmed.

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