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Thread: Liver disease: Not from what is in the food, but what may be on the food?

  1. #1
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    Default Liver disease: Not from what is in the food, but what may be on the food?

    This cause of liver cirrhosis is not always from what is in the foods, but what may be on them?

    Both humans and mammals are susceptible to being infected with this parasite.

    "Jan 23, 2007 ... fibrosis: Rats infected with the Capillaria nematodes develop septal hepatic fibrosis 20-30 days after infection.22 Rats infected with the helminth Capillaria hepatica regularly develop septal fibrosis of the liver. Fibrosis starts when the focal parasitic lesions begin to show signs of resorption"

    https://parasitesandvectors.biomedce...1756-3305-3-11

    The eggs can be found in the feces of an infected host.

    https://www.researchgate.net/publica...les_by_Washing

    Washing of fruits, leafy green and vegetables in purified water, and blanching can help prevent infections from helminth's eggs

    that are found in the soil and can contaminate leafy greens, or raw vegetables, or other ground cultivars.

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    Default Re: Liver diseaseL Not from what is in the food, but what may be on the food?

    Liver disease caused in rats from Helminths described:

    http://www.aavp.org/wiki/nematodes/a...ium-hepaticum/

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16889021

    https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jvm/2014/172829/


    This journal file lists Fox Squirrels, and the Black tailed Prairie dogs as being

    documented as having been found to have this infection.

    https://link.springer.com/content/pd...013-3692-9.pdf


    Ground leafy greens and vegetables are susceptiable to carry this parasites eggs.

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    Default Re: Liver diseaseL Not from what is in the food, but what may be on the food?

    Identification of (Calodium Hepatica)

    Hosts. C. hepaticum is commonly found in the liver of wild rats and, less frequently, in mice, squirrels, muskrats, hares, beavers, dogs, pigs, nonhuman primates, and rarely, in man. (save in Brazil where it is common) The infection rate is often very high in wild rats.
    Documented in Fox Squirrels (LA), and Black Tailed Praire Dogs , Marmots, etc. in the USA. (See chart in pdf)

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics...ences/hepatica

    Diagnosis. Final diagnosis is based on the demonstration of parasites or eggs in the liver. Parasite eggs are only found in the rat feces after cannibalism of other infected rats. However, this is uncommon.

    Treatment. Both mebendazole and ivermectin have been shown to eliminate early larval stages of C. hepaticum and to reduce fecundity of adult worms (El Gebaly et al., 1996).

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    Default Re: Liver diseaseL Not from what is in the food, but what may be on the food?

    https://link.springer.com/content/pd...013-3692-9.pdf

    Besides a Fox squirrel, and some black tailed Prairie dogs which were found to be infected with (Calodium Hepatica),

    a Lowland Paca, a rodent similar to an agouti introduced to Costa Rica, was also found to be infected with, 'Calodium Hepatica'.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lowland_paca (Click on photos to enlarge)

    This is a nematode which enters the body by the animal ingesting its eggs, which mature and find their way the liver causing abscesses that lead mortality if not treated.

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    Default Re: Liver disease: Not from what is in the food, but what may be on the food?

    Identification of (Calodium Hepatica)

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics...ences/hepatica

    David G. Baker, in The Laboratory Rat (Second Edition), 2006


    2. Calodium hepaticum

    Description and lifecycle. Calodium hepaticum, formerly known as Capillaria hepatica, is a member of the order Enoplida, and is therefore phylogenetically related to Trichinella spiralis, Trichuris sp., and Trichosomoides crassicauda. Adult worms are slender. The eggs are brownish, barrel-shaped, and possess a thick double wall, of which the outer one is distinctly pitted. At each end of the egg there is a plug (operculum) that does not bulge beyond the outline of the outer wall.

    Calodium hepaticum has a direct lifecycle but may involve a transport host. The natural host acquires the infection by ingesting infective embryonated eggs in the environment. These hatch in the cecum, and the larvae penetrate the intestinal mucosa and enter the portal vein. Larvae reach the liver, where they mature within 3 weeks. The adult worms live for short periods but deposit large numbers of unembryonated eggs in the liver (Figs. 13-5 and 13-6). These eggs do not develop but may remain viable in the liver for many months. When the infected mammal is eaten by a carnivorous animal, eggs are then discharged and passed out in the feces. Alternatively, cannibalism and carcass decomposition may release eggs into the environment (Farhang-Azad, 1977). Eggs embryonate in the environment, and become infective in 2 to 6 weeks under suitable conditions.

    Hosts. C. hepaticum is commonly found in the liver of wild rats and, less frequently, in mice, squirrels, muskrats, hares, beavers, dogs, pigs, nonhuman primates, and rarely, in man. The infection rate is often very high in wild rats. Ceruti and coworkers (2001) reported a prevalence of 36% of 47 wild rats, Conlogue and coworkers (1979) found 82% of 86 wild rats infected, and lastly, Luttermoser (1936) found 86% of 2,500 wild rats infected.

    Diagnosis. Final diagnosis is based on the demonstration of parasites or eggs in the liver. Parasite eggs are only found in the rat feces after cannibalism of other infected rats. However, this is uncommon.Pathobiology. Although the parasite has low pathogenicity in rats, infection can result in hepatomegaly and liver damage. Accumulations of eggs in the liver are usually visible as irregular yellow-gray spots or streaks on the surface. Histologically, the liver architecture is distorted by granulomatous foci. Adult parasites and/or eggs may be observed in the central portion of the lesions, which consist of an amorphous center with parasites surrounded by eosinophils, plasma cells, macrophages, epithelioid cells, and multinucleated giant cells. In more advanced stages, there are extensive areas of septal fibrosis, containing large numbers of eggs (Santos et al., 2001). In fact, the C. hepaticum-rat system has been developed as a valuable model for testing antifibrotic drugs (de Souza et al., 2000).

    Clinical symptoms. Infection with C. hepaticum is generally asymptomatic. It can be anticipated that heavily infected rats may experience anorexia, malaise, and other signs compatible with hepatic dysfunction.

    Treatment. Both mebendazole and ivermectin have been shown to eliminate early larval stages of C. hepaticum and to reduce fecundity of adult worms (El Gebaly et al., 1996). However, unless infected colonies are highly valuable, they should be culled.

    Prevention and control. C. hepaticum infection should not occur in well-managed laboratory rat colonies. Rodent feed and bedding stocks should be protected from contamination with feces from other animals, particularly that of feral dogs.

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    Default Re: Liver disease: Not from what is in the food, but what may be on the food?

    When it comes to endo-parasitical infections like (Calodium Hepatica), though the only documented incidence in tree squirrels was in a Fox squirrel in Louisiana, with other mammals found in other regions found to be infected with this parasite, including PA., where ground hogs were found to be infected with HC, there is a significant potential that in those regions that have squirrel habitat, that some tree squirrels also have been infected with HC.

    Of those mammals that spend more time on the ground where the source of this parasite is found, are more at risk to acquiring this lethal parasitical infection. This is why rats have been found to have the highest numbers of infected animals Worldwide. That said, rats breed, well like rats, and that alone accounts for higher percentage of animals on that account; but also for reason rats live in close knit dense colonies which share actual food that commonly includes carrion. And though there are no studies I have presently located that have studied the incidence of HC in tree squirrels (thankfully), this doesn't negate that tree squirrels, that have been found to be infected in LA. in the US. are also highly likely to be infected, though it much lower numbers than in rat populations, in other areas where other mammals have been found to be infected with this disease, that confirm that soils in this region are infected with this parasitical worm.

    Another group of animals that have been found all over the World to have been infected with CH are found in zoos, again denoting a common source of the infection in closer quarters. Yet what stands our from this study data as to the animals infected with HC, and the locations they live, is that both are diverse, not then limited to rodents. Humans also are susceptible of becoming infected with this potentially deadly parasitical infection, if not treated with Ivermectin, or similar parasiticide.

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    Default Re: Liver disease: Not from what is in the food, but what may be on the food?

    Here's a study on the origins of (fibrosis & cirrhosis) liver disease. In one experiment, Calodium Hepatica was induced in rats; the progression of the disease is discussed. Apparently the parasite dies out at 6 months; yet what is not well understood is why after die-out the infection continues on.

    Fibrotic therapy is discussed as a means to reverse liver disease.

    The 2nd study is on Bilberry, one of the higher antioxidant berry sources, which offers some protection against liver damage.

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    Default Re: Liver disease: Not from what is in the food, but what may be on the food?

    Has anyone on here experienced this?
    mama of 3

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    Default Re: Liver disease: Not from what is in the food, but what may be on the food?

    This endoparasites infection is not uncommon is common in rats and prairie dogs in N.A. . It was also was found in a fox squirrel in the gulf, but also in other species of rodents that inhabit tropical regions nearer the equator.

    Know as "Fatty liver disease', it is common with gross obesity, which may also manifest in cancerous tumors on the extremities, as well as within the liver itself.

    'Aspergilloses' from the ingestion of toxic Aspergillus black mold promotes liver cancer also.. In tree squirrels in hte more humid warm southern climates, this can occur from the fungal contaminated acorns. Also from acorns stored in the freezer after they warm up with moisture creates a perfect environment for mold growth from mold spores deposited by nut weevils. Best to store nuts in the shell save they are placed in a cool but dry place.

    To help protect a squirrel from developing liver cancer include Pycnogenol daily.

    And should the ingestion of contaminated nuts be suspect from illness, then add milk thistle seed oil 1 droplet daily or as advised by a veterinarian.

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