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Thread: Brazil nuts can kill

  1. #21
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    Default Re: Brazil nuts can kill

    Quote Originally Posted by Mel1959 View Post
    Thank you for this information. I have fed these to my dwarf, Joey, because he hides the pecans and walnuts and only seems to eat the pine nuts and Brazil nuts, both seem to be on the do not feed list now. I am curious though, a vegan health food restaurant/store in my area sells Brazil nut milk....for a very hefty price...as a substitute for cows milk. Does anyone know if the selenium affects humans in the same way? The Brazil nut milk is supposed to be high in potassium. Could that be a contributing factor as well?
    In reference to your question about drinking Brazilian nut milk, you may find this information helpful. I can't say that depends on the person and how much Selium your body has already been exposed to ...

    Studies on Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) and their products revealed its antioxidant benefits, especially due to the Selenium (Se) level, naturally present in Brazil nuts. The Brazil nut tree is a Se accumulating plant and it is well-known the average of 100 µg of Se in two Brazil nuts. This amount supports the recommended daily intake (RDI) for Se of 55 μg per day. On the other hand, it can be dangerous if the amount of Se is above the tolerable upper nutrient intake level for adults about 400 μg per day. In order to study toxicological risks to consumers, the aim of this work was to evaluate the Brazil nut “milk” in two forms: Hydro-soluble (condensed milk) and powdered (by atomization). The hydro-soluble samples showed an average of 150μg/100g. The value obtained was greater than that observed in the commercial soy product, which is not an acknowledged source of Se, as Brazil nut. The powdered “milk” showed Se content of 1.200 μg/100 g after atomization. Thus, when one considers the consumption of a tablespoon (10 g) of the powdered product diluted in a 200 ml glass, 60 μg per Se is proportionally obtained and this value is under the Se RDI for humans. In conclusion, the Se levels found in Brazil nuts “milk” were safe to consumers and higher than soybean milk, vegetable “milk”. Thus, the industry must evaluate each produced lot, since the Se content in the raw material varies according to the geographic region. It is import to emphasize the correct dilution in the labeling information of the product, in order to avoid the Se toxic level to the consumers.

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  3. #22
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    Default Re: Brazil nuts can kill

    Hi all, just curious about this. I have a wild sq that visits me and he loves brazil nuts. He only gets one and i buy them shelled and he doesnt get one everyday. He has been getting them for 4 years. My mom and i both order from nuts.com & anuts.com and take nuts to the park, mom & I know all the sqs by name in the park and none were not missing, she & I have been feeding these sqs for years. Is it younger sqs that cannot handle it or adults too? Thanks

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  5. #23
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    Default Re: Brazil nuts can kill

    Quote Originally Posted by slee View Post
    Hi all, just curious about this. I have a wild sq that visits me and he loves brazil nuts. He only gets one and i buy them shelled and he doesnt get one everyday. He has been getting them for 4 years. My mom and i both order from nuts.com & anuts.com and take nuts to the park, mom & I know all the sqs by name in the park and none were not missing, she & I have been feeding these sqs for years. Is it younger sqs that cannot handle it or adults too? Thanks
    I guess the prudent response is if there are risks why take a chance. There are many other choices for the wilds like Hazlenuts, Pecans, and for those on a budget - even Peanuts. With a squirrels tiny body and fast metabolism who knows how much Selenium can be toxic. Why chance it? It's like the old guy who smoked and drank until he was a ripe old 95. I'll bet for every one of him there are 10 who died early of cancer or cirrhosis of the liver.

    Here ya go...


    "How much selenium is in one Brazil nut? Just one ounce (6 to 8 nuts) contains 544 mcg of selenium, which is the equivalent of 777% of your Recommended Dietary Allowance. That means even a single nut can contain up to 91 mcg of selenium – that’s 165% of the RDI for adults".
    So can you imagine how much eating just one nut can harm a tiny squirrel!

    Based on the average human weight of 137 Lbs and the average squirrel weight of 1.3 Lbs you are +- 105 times heavier than a squirrel. Think about the levels of Selenium in a squirrel with just one nut.

    Source: https://www.superfoodly.com/brazil-n...oning-dangers/

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  7. #24
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    Default Re: Brazil nuts can kill

    FYI...
    The name Peanuts is misleading, they are in fact not nuts but legumes. They grow underground, as opposed to real "tree" nuts such as Hazelnuts,
    walnuts, almonds, etc. Peanuts, as well as beans and peas, belong to the single plant family, Leguminosae.
    Recommend calcium to phosphorus levels 2-1. Peanuts, calcium 1.0 with a high phosphorus of 5.9. We do not recommend feeding peanuts to captives
    due to the high
    phosphorus levels.
    Step-N-Stone
    State Licensed
    Wildlife Master Rehabilitator


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  9. #25
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    Default Re: Brazil nuts can kill

    Quote Originally Posted by SophieSquirrel View Post
    There are many other choices for the wilds like Hazlenuts, Pecans, and for those on a budget - even Peanuts.
    S-n-S, Agreed about captives and peanuts - I was referring to wilds as the OP mentioned feeding them Brazil Nuts.

    Wilds receive a more natural diet with calcium and plenty of natural sunlight so it offsets eating of some Peanuts, Sunflower Seeds. Henry's uses Peanuts in Wildbites for that reason and to save money. WB's are only $11.99 b/c it has Peanuts instead of Pecans and are generally not recommended for captives unless it's the only way to get them to eat blocks. There is no way to offset Selenium overdose from Brazil Nuts in wilds or captives.

    Leigh even states "picky pets" for the captive owner on a budget. I think the point is it's a small amount for flavoring in WB's and no one should feed whole Peanuts (or Sunflower Seeds) to a captive.

    https://www.henryspets.com/wild-bites/
    Picky pets will love the delicious peanut taste. Wild squirrels will appreciate the extra carbs and nutrients. Made with peanuts so they're less expensive, but with the same nutrition as our other blocks. Just two blocks a day provide complete nutrition for all species of squirrels. A balanced calciumhosphorus ratio plus extra zinc and vitamin E to promote healing and immune function. Each bag contains a 1-month supply of blocks for an average-sized squirrel.

    Ingredients: Peanuts, wheat flour, pecans, whey protein isolate, wheat protein isolate, whole eggs, sugar, cracked wheat, oat bran, tri-calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, lecithin, potassium chloride, baking powder, phylloquinone (vitamin K), selenium, magnesium oxide, cholcalciferol (vitamin D3), folic acid, iodine, ferrous sulfate (iron), zinc, copper glycinate chelate, molybdenum, manganese, d-alpha tocopheryl succinate (vitamin E), vitamin A (60% beta-carotene; 40% retinyl palmitate), pantothenic acid, niacin (vitamin B-3), riboflavin (vitamin B-2), pyroxidine hydrochloride (vitamin B-6), thiamin (vitamin B-1), cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12), biotin.

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  11. #26
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    Default Re: Brazil nuts can kill

    Selenium toxicity has been well documented in humans and in rats.

    In humans and rats reaching Selenium toxicity was effected by the form of selenium consumed, as the inorganic forms tend to build up faster in the blood to toxic levels.

    In rats, though around 8 mcg. is noted as the requirement level, the rodent block diets most often include either 0.02 mcg. daily or none. This may be for reason of the source that has been used being an inorganic form of selenium, that is high elementally compared to the organic forms.

    In humans, eating one kernel of this nut provides 160 % of their RDA for Selenium daily. Eating one kernel twice a week lends good support to the total selenium in human diets, along with other nutrients that this nut has been found to provide.

    https://draxe.com/brazil-nuts/

    Back in the late 90's we too little about specific sources of nuts or other food forms that were good for the tree squirrels we had rescued and raised. With a few Brazil nuts in the mix of nuts included in the bag, we gave the squirrels far less of the Brazil nuts, as well as feeding them less frequently than other nuts. The squirrels had a harder time opening them for one, the male spending more time gnawing on the shells. The female would eat one one on occasion, but more often set this nut aside when it took more effort to open. Having removed this nut from the diet earlier on, our girl thankfully lived to past 11 years of age, yet the male passed early in life from an undetermined cause after having his blood tested by a veterinarian for bacteria and viruses which were not found. Both squirrels were afforded an ample supply of calcium in their diet.

    The included attachment is a study journal on the toxicity of selenium in rats. For those into research it may be worth your time to read through it.
    Attached Images Attached Images

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  13. #27
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    Default Re: Brazil nuts can kill

    Quote Originally Posted by SophieSquirrel View Post
    "How much selenium is in one Brazil nut? Just one ounce (6 to 8 nuts) contains 544 mcg of selenium, which is the equivalent of 777% of your Recommended Dietary Allowance. That means even a single nut can contain up to 91 mcg of selenium – that’s 165% of the RDI for adults".[/I] So can you imagine how much eating just one nut can harm a tiny squirrel!

    Based on the average human weight of 137 Lbs and the average squirrel weight of 1.3 Lbs you are +- 105 times heavier than a squirrel. Think about the levels of Selenium in a squirrel with just one nut
    D.F. - what are your thoughts on the reasoning of the above quote?

  14. #28
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    Default Re: Brazil nuts can kill

    I admit i'm not presently familiar with the date this is based upon; for this reason I wouldn't presume to give an opinion on the particulars.

    My focus generally is upon specific data noted in rat studies mostly, that relates directly to the amount of the a source as a nutritional supplement, and the levels at which toxicity begins. In that these two are noted to be rather close in amounts is teh basis for my concern that this source isn't safe to add to the diet by means of this whole food source. I think this is why most of the rodent block diets only include a trace of this mineral, for perhaps the forms that are included tends to build up in the body to toxicity levels?

    In the rat, the dietary requirement for selenium is ca. 0.20 mg kg-1 (Hafeman et al., 1974).
    The threshold for selenium toxicity from selenite is about 0.50 mg kg-1, a mere 2.5 times the dietary requirement
    (Tinsley et al., 1967). Chronic dietary selenite toxicity in the rat begins at 3–4 mg kg-1 and there is almost no
    survival of rats fed 16 mg kg-1 Se (Harr et al., 1967). Chronic ingestion of either selenite or selenate in the
    rat, at the same selenium dietary levels, exhibits nearly equivalent toxicity (Brasher and Ogle, 1993; Wilber,
    1993). Dietary ingestion of organoselenium compounds, however, exhibit wide differences in toxicity
    For this reason I wouldn't recommend include this nut as whole food source based upon study journal.

  15. #29
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    Default Re: Brazil nuts can kill

    Wow, i have a wild squirrel that gets a brazil nut, not daily, but he has gotten them over a 4 yr time span. I buy nuts in the bulk already shelled. How is it some squirrels are alright and orhers not?

  16. #30
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    Default Re: Brazil nuts can kill

    In the attached file the study in Selenium relates that inorganic forms that include Selenium Di-oxide, builds up in the blood to where it will become toxic over time. See this section on "SELENIUM TOXICITY IN ANIMALS".

    "In the rat, the dietary requirement for selenium is ca. 0.20 mg kg-1 (Hafeman et al., 1974). The threshold for selenium toxicity from selenite is about 0.50 mg kg-1, a mere 2.5 times the dietary requirement (Tinsley et al., 1967). Chronic dietary selenite toxicity in the rat begins at 3–4 mg kg-1 and there is almost no survival of rats fed 16 mg kg-1 Se (Harr et al., 1967)."
    "Chronic ingestion of either selenite or selenate in the rat, at the same selenium dietary levels, exhibits nearly equivalent toxicity (Brasher and Ogle, 1993; Wilber, 1993). Dietary ingestion of organoselenium compounds, however, exhibit wide differences in toxicity."
    This is why the amounts noted in rodent block diets are below the daily requirment for selenium at 150 per Kg of diet, or 7.5 mcg. per 50 grams of diet. For when you look at other diets noting 0.02 mcg. daily, this is most likely due to the source being one of the inorganic higher elemental sources of Selenium that build up quickly in the blood, andn why the amounts noted in block diets don't't reflect the amount of the daily requirement.

    "Dietary ingestion of organoselenium compounds, however, exhibit wide differences in toxicity."
    1. Selenium compounds, i.e., selenite and selenium dioxide, can react with glutathione (GSH) and other thiols to form selenotrisulfides that will ultimately react to produce superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, and are toxic.

    2. Diselenides, i.e., selenocystine and selenocystamine in the presence of GSH and other thiols, are reduced to selenols (RSeH), which are catalytic, produce superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, and are toxic.

    3. Selenium compounds that do not react with thiols,i.e., selenate and all tested selenoethers (RSeR), do not produce superoxide or hydrogen peroxide in vitro and are not toxic per se.

    4. Selenate and selenoethers are toxic in tissue culture or in vivo only after being reduced to selenite or a selenol.

    5. Selenium toxicity manifests itself acutely or chronically when oxidative damage exceeds antioxidant defenses or the ability of either plants or animals to form seleno -
    proteins, selenoethers, or elemental selenium (Se0) (Spallholz, 1994).
    Without looking deeper into the toxicity level of the form of selenium in Brazil Nuts, to consider including this source in the diet would be risky. If you already feed a block diet it may aleady include what is a safe level to include in the diet; adding to it wouldn't be needful, nor warranted.

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